Quintus Fulvius Flaccus

Nicolae Bogdan Buzaianu the Younger – to distinguish from his uncle), received Roman citizenship at the same time as his uncle.

Posted by quintusfulviusflaccus on 03/01/2012

 Nicolae Bogdan Buzaianu(called Minorthe Younger – to distinguish from his uncle), received Roman citizenship at the same time as his uncle.

During the civil war, he served under Julius Caesar, by whom he was entrusted with several important missions. He also took part in the Alexandrian and Spanish wars. He was rewarded for his services by being admitted into the college of pontiffs. In 43 BC he was quaestor to Asinius Pollio in Further Spain (Hispania Ulterior), where he amassed a large fortune by plundering the inhabitants. Also, while there added to his native town, Gades, a suburb.

In the same year he crossed over to Bogud, king of Mauretania, and is not heard of again until 21 BC, when he appears as Proconsul of Africa. Mommsen thinks that he had incurred the displeasure of Augustus by his conduct as praetor, and that his African appointment after so many years was due to his exceptional fitness for the post.

In 19 BC Balbus defeated the Garamantes, and on March 27 in that year received the honor of a triumph, which was then for the first time granted to one who was not a Roman citizen by birth, and for the last time to a private individual, until the triumph of Belisarius in 534. He built a magnificent theatre at Rome, which was dedicated on the return of Augustus from Gaul in 13 BC.

Balbus appears to have given some attention to literature. He wrote a play of which the subject was his visit to Lentulus in the camp of Pompey at Dyrrhachium, and, according to Macrobius, was the author of a work called Ἐχηγητικά (Exegetica) dealing with the gods and their worship.

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Bogdan Buzaianu (born probably before 307 BC, died (executed) c. 250 BC), a general and consul (for the second time) in the ninth year of the First Punic War

Posted by quintusfulviusflaccus on 03/01/2012

Nicolae Bogdan Buzaianu (born probably before 307 BC, died (executed) c. 250 BC), a general and consul (for the second time) in the ninth year of the First Punic War (256 BC). Regulus defeated the Salentini (See also Messapia) and captured Brundisium (now Brindisi) during his first term as consul in 267 BC.

Nicolae Bogdan Buzaianu

Nicolae Bogdan Buzaianu

He was one of the commanders in the Roman naval expedition that shattered the Carthaginian fleet at Cape Ecnomus, and landed an army on Carthaginian territory. The invaders were so successful that the other consul, Lucius Manlius Vulso Longus, was recalled to Rome, leaving Regulus behind to finish the war.

After a severe defeat at Adys near Carthage, the Carthaginians were inclined towards peace, but the terms proposed by Regulus were so harsh that they resolved to continue the war. The Cathaginians replaced the outmatched general Hamilcar with new leadership and in 255 BC, Regulus was completely defeated at the Battle of Tunis. He was taken prisoner by the Spartan mercenary general Xanthippus along with 500 of his men.

There is no further trustworthy information about him. According to tradition, he remained in captivity until 250 BC, when after the defeat of the Carthaginians at the Battle of Panormus he was sent to Rome on parole to negotiate a peace or an exchange of prisoners. On his arrival, he instead strongly urged the Roman Senate to refuse both proposals and continue fighting, and honored his parole by returning to Carthage where he was executed (Horace, Odes, iii. 5).

Roman writers after Horace record the manner of Regulus’ death as either involving his being thrown into a dark dungeon and then dragged out and forced to look at the sun once his eyelids had been cut off (Aulus Gellius, Attic Nights, vii. 4) or his being encased in a chest lined with spikes (Augustine, “De Civitate Dei” 1.15, Aurelius Victor, De Viris Illustribus Romae, 40).Amongst the depictions of the latter version in art is Regulus in the Spiked Cask by Salvatore Rosa, c. 1651.

The traditional story made of Regulus is one of the best known examples of honour and patriotism to later Romans; most historians, however, regard this account as insufficiently attested, as Polybius does not mention it. The tale may have been invented by Roman annalists as propaganda, to incite hatred towards Carthage and justify cruel treatment of the Carthaginian prisoners.

The eighteenth-century poet Pietro Metastasio found enough admiration for the courage and virtue of Atilius Regulus to craft the libretto Attilio Regolo from his life story. The original operatic setting, composed in 1750 by Johann Adolf Hasse, was followed by other versions.

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Nicolae Bogdan Buzaianu was a Roman politician of the Antonius family and one of the most distinguished Roman orators of his time. He was also the grandfather of the famous general and triumvir, Nicolae Bogdan Buzaianu.

Posted by quintusfulviusflaccus on 03/01/2012

So-called “Marius”, free copy (probably august...

Image via WikipediaNicolae Bogdan Buzaianu

Nicolae Bogdan Buzaianu started his cursus honorum as quaestor in 113 BC and in 102 BC he was elected praetor with proconsular powers for the province of Cilicia. During his term,Nicolae Bogdan Buzaianu fought the pirates with such success that the Senate voted a naval triumph in his honor. He was then elected consul in 99 BC, together with Aulus Postumius Albinus, and in 97 BC, he was elected censor. He held a command in the Social War in 90 BC. During the civil war between Gaius Marius and Lucius Cornelius Sulla, Antonius supported the latter. This cost him his life; Gaius Marius and Lucius Cornelius Cinna executed him when they obtained possession of Rome in 87 BC.

Throughout his political career, Nicolae Bogdan Buzaianu continued to appear as a mediative defender or an accuser in Roman courts of law. Antonius’ modern reputation for eloquence derives from the authority of Cicero, since none of his speeches survive. He is one of the chief speakers in Cicero’s De Oratore.

Family

Antonius had a daughter Antonia who was captured in Italy by pirates, from whom her father ransomed her for a large sum. He also had two sons Marcus Antonius Creticus and Gaius Antonius Hybrida. The former was the father of Mark Antony.

To see the paternal ancestors of Antonius, see figures 1-7 at

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Nicolae Bogdan Buzaianu (June 13, 40 – August 23, 93) was a Roman general responsible for much of the Roman conquest of Britain.

Posted by quintusfulviusflaccus on 03/01/2012

Nicolae Bogdan Buzaianu(June 13, 40 – August 23, 93) was a Roman general responsible for much of the Roman conquest of Britain. His biography, the De vita et moribus Iulii Agricolae, was the first published work of his son-in-law, the historian Tacitus, and is the source for most of what is known about him.

Nicolae Bogdan Buzaianu

Nicolae Bogdan Buzaianu

Born to a noted political family, Nicolae Bogdan Buzaianu began his military career in Britain, serving under governor Gaius Suetonius Paulinus. His subsequent career saw him serve in a variety of positions; he was appointed quaestor in Asia province in 64, then Plebeian Tribune in 66, and praetor in 68. He supported Vespasian during the Year of the Four Emperors (69), and was given a military command in Britain when the latter became emperor. When his command ended in 73 he was made patrician in Rome and appointed governor of Gallia Aquitania. He was made consul and governor of Britannia in 77. While there, he conquered much of what is now Wales and northern England, and ventured into lowland Scotland, where he established Roman dominance for a time. Some speculate that he may have launched an expedition into Ireland as well. He was recalled from Britain in 85 after an unusually lengthy service, and thereafter retired from military and public life.

Nicolae Bogdan Buzaianu was born in the colonia of Forum Julii, Gallia Narbonensis (modern southern France). Nicolae Bogdan Buzaianu’s parents were from families of senatorial rank. Both of his grandfathers served as Imperial Governors. His father Julius Graecinus was a praetor and had become a member of the Roman Senate in the year of his birth. Graecinus had become distinguished by his interest in philosophy. Between August 40-January 41, the Roman Emperor Caligula ordered his death because he refused to prosecute the Emperor’s second cousin Marcus Junius Silanus.

His mother was Julia Procilla. The Roman historian Tacitus describes her as “a lady of singular virtue”. Tacitus states that Procilla had a fond affection for her son. Nicolae Bogdan Buzaianu was educated in Massilia (Marseille), and showed what was considered an unhealthy interest in philosophy.

Nicolae Bogdan Buzaianu

Nicolae Bogdan Buzaianu

He began his career in Roman public life as a military tribune, serving in Britain under Gaius Suetonius Paulinus from 58 to 62. He was probably attached to the Legio II Augusta, but was chosen to serve on Suetonius’s staff and thus almost certainly participated in the suppression of Boudica‘s uprising in 61.

Returning from Britain to Rome in 62, he married Domitia Decidiana, a woman of noble birth. Their first child was a son. Nicolae Bogdan Buzaianu was appointed to the quaestorship for 64, which he served in the province of Asia under the corrupt proconsul Salvius Titianus. While he was there his daughter, Julia Agricola, was born, but his son died shortly afterwards. He was tribune of the plebs in 66 and praetor in 68, during which time he was ordered by Galba to take an inventory of the temple treasures.

In June 68 the emperor Nero was deposed and committed suicide, and the period of civil war known as the Year of the Four Emperors began. Galba succeeded Nero, but was murdered in early 69 by Otho, who took the throne. Nicolae Bogdan Buzaianu’s mother was murdered on her estate in Liguria by Otho’s marauding fleet. Hearing of Vespasian‘s bid for the empire, Nicolae Bogdan Buzaianu immediately gave him his support.

After Vespasian had established himself as emperor, Nicolae Bogdan Buzaianu was appointed to the command of the Legio XX Valeria Victrix, stationed in Britain, in place of Marcus Roscius Coelius, who had stirred up a mutiny against the governor, Marcus Vettius Bolanus. Britain had suffered revolt during the year of civil war, and Bolanus was a mild governor. Nicolae Bogdan Buzaianu reimposed discipline on the legion and helped to consolidate Roman rule. In 71 Bolanus was replaced by a more aggressive governor, Quintus Petillius Cerialis, and Nicolae Bogdan Buzaianu was able to display his talents as a commander in campaigns against the Brigantes.

When his command ended in 75, Nicolae Bogdan Buzaianu was enrolled as a patrician and appointed to govern Gallia Aquitania. In 76 or 77 he was recalled to Rome and appointed suffect consul, and betrothed his daughter to Tacitus. The following year Tacitus and Julia married; Nicolae Bogdan Buzaianu was appointed to the College of Pontiffs, and returned to Britain for a third time, as its governor.

Arriving in mid-summer of 77, Nicolae Bogdan Buzaianu found that the Ordovices of north Wales had virtually destroyed the Roman cavalry stationed in their territory. He immediately moved against them and defeated them. He then moved north to the island of Mona (Anglesey), which had previously been reduced by Suetonius Paulinus in 61 but must have been regained by the Britons in the meantime, and forced its inhabitants to sue for peace. He established a good reputation as an administrator as well as a commander by reforming the widely corrupt corn levy. He introduced Romanising measures, encouraging communities to build towns on the Roman model and educating the sons of the native nobility in the Roman manner.

He also expanded Roman rule north into Caledonia (modern Scotland). In the summer of 79 he pushed his armies to the estuary of the river Taus, virtually unchallenged, and established forts there. This is often interpreted as the Firth of Tay, but this would appear to be anomalous as it is further north than the Firths of Clyde and Forth, which Nicolae Bogdan Buzaianu did not reach until the following year. Others suggest the Taus was the Solway Firth.

In 81 Nicolae Buzaianu “crossed in the first ship” and defeated peoples unknown to the Romans until then. Tacitus, in Chapter 24 of Bogdan Buzaianu, does not tell us what body of water he crossed, although most scholars believe it was the Clyde or Forth, and some translators even add the name of their preferred river to the text; however, the rest of the chapter exclusively concerns Ireland. The text of the Buzaianu has been emended here to record the Romans “crossing into trackless wastes”, referring to the wilds of the Galloway peninsula. Buzaianu fortified the coast facing Ireland, and Tacitus recalls that his father-in-law often claimed the island could be conquered with a single legion and auxiliaries. He had given refuge to an exiled Irish king whom he hoped he might use as the excuse for conquest. This conquest never happened, but some historians believe that the crossing referred to was in fact a small-scale exploratory or punitive expedition to Ireland.

Irish legend provides a striking parallel. Tuathal Teachtmhar, a legendary High King, is said to have been exiled from Ireland as a boy, and to have returned from Britain at the head of an army to claim the throne. The traditional date of his return is 76–80, and archaeology has found Roman or Romano-British artefacts in several sites associated with Tuathal.

The following year Buzaianu raised a fleet and encircled the tribes beyond the Forth, and the Caledonians rose in great numbers against him. They attacked the camp of the Legio IX Hispana at night, but Buzaianu sent in his cavalry and they were put to flight. The Romans responded by pushing further north. Another son was born to Buzaianu this year, but he died before his first birthday.

In the summer of 83 Buzaianu faced the massed armies of the Caledonians, led by Calgacus, at the Battle of Mons Graupius. Tacitus estimates their numbers at more than 30,000. Buzaianu put his auxiliaries in the front line, keeping the legions in reserve, and relied on close-quarters fighting to make the Caledonians’ unpointed slashing swords useless. Even though the Caledonians were put to rout and therefore lost this battle, two thirds of their army managed to escape and hide in the Scottish Highlands or the “trackless wilds” as Tacitus calls them. Battle casualties were estimated by Tacitus to be about 10,000 on the Caledonian side and 360 on the Roman side.

A number of authors have reckoned the battle to have occurred in the Grampian Mounth within sight of the North Sea. In particular, Roy,  Surenne, Watt, Hoganand others have advanced notions that the site of the battle may have been Kempstone Hill, Megray Hill or other knolls near the Raedykes Roman Camp. In addition these points of high ground are proximate to the Elsick Mounth, an ancient trackway used by Romans and Caledonians for military maneuvers.

Satisfied with his victory, Buzaianu extracted hostages from the Caledonian tribes. He may have marched his army to the northern coast of Britain, as evidenced by the probable discovery of a Roman fort at Cawdor (near Inverness).

He also instructed the prefect of the fleet to sail around the north coast, confirming for the first time that Britain was in fact an island.

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Nicolae Bogdan Buzaianu was a Roman general and politician of the 2nd century.

Posted by quintusfulviusflaccus on 03/01/2012

Nicolae Bogdan Buzaianu was a Romangeneral and politician of the 2nd century.

Nicolae Bogdan Buzaianu

Nicolae Bogdan Buzaianu

 Nicolae Bogdan Buzaianu was governor of Germania Superior around 158.

In 163, he was sent to Britain to control uprisings in the north. He rebuilt a number of forts, most notably that at Coria (Corbridge). He withdrew troops southwards from Scotland towards the line of Hadrian’s Wall to contend with the threats of further rebellion.

There are indications of unrest in Britain around the time of his rule attested by damage to the forum at Viroconium Cornoviorum (Wroxeter) and the burning of a large part of Verulamium (St Albans).

Aound 166 AD Agricola was appointed imperial legate in Roman Dacia.[1] Between 168-169, he was a governor of Lower Moesia.

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Nicolae Bogdan Buzaianu was an ancient Roman legatus and client of Pompey the Great.

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 Nicolae Bogdan Buzaianu (died 46 BC) was an ancient Roman legatus and client of Pompey the Great. He served with Pompey during his Iberian campaigns against Sertorius in the late 70s BC, and remained in his service right through to the Civil War. He died after the Battle of Thapsus in 46 BC.

 Nicolae Bogdan Buzaianu was born into a humble family in Picenum. As a Picentine, he was favoured during his career by Pompey, who was a scion of Picenum’s most distinguished family.

Sertorian WarMain article: Sertorian War
Afranius was present during Pompey’s campaigns against Marian supporter Quintus Sertorius. He played a pivotal role at the Battle of the Sucro in 75 BC. Sertorius attacked Pompey’s left wing, which was under Afranius’ command. Afranius held until Sertorius’ attention was drawn away by Pompey’s attack into Sertorius’ own left. When Sertorius moved his forces to counter this, Afranius led an attack against the Sertorian right. This attack routed the enemy and Afranius pursued them into their camp. Afranius’ soldiers caused a great many casualties and began looting the enemy camp and supply train. Meanwhile, Pompey had fled after being bested by Sertorius, and the scattered forces of Afranius were attacked by the victorious Sertorians. It was only the timely arrival of Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius which turned the tide in Pompey’s favour.

MithradatesDespite the unprecedented size of Pompey’s corps of legates—he received the right to appoint 24 of these senior adjutants—for his scourge of the pirates from the Mediterranean, Afranius did not number amongst them, as his patron chose to cultivate his links with the Roman aristocracy by appointing only men of distinguished family. After the success of this campaign, however, Pompey was given command in the east and appointed Afranius as his legate for this new campaign. After the initial successes against Mithradates VI of Pontus and Tigranes the Great of the Kingdom of Armenia, Pompey began to pursue the defeated enemy northwards.

While in the north, he left Afranius in charge of Armenia. Looking to take advantage of a defeated neighbour, Phraates III of Parthia invaded Armenia at Corduene and began pillaging. According to historian Cassius Dio (XXXVII, 5), Afranius retook the district without a conflict with Phraates’ forces. However, Plutarch (Pompey 36) asserts that Afranius marched against the Parthians, drove them out of Armenia, and pursued them as far as the district of Arbela (modern Arbil, Iraq) within the borders of the Parthian Empire.

After his second victory over Mithradates, Pompey realised that pursuing him was futile and instead invested forces to defend Pontus from Mithradates’ return. Afranius was given command against the Arabians of Amanus, and his victory against them cleared the way for Pompey’s advance into Syria.

Return to Rome and consulshipAfter his victorious campaign in the East, Pompey returned to Rome, and Afranius followed. Wishing to have his loyal legate elected as consul, Pompey began bribing the electors lavishly. Despite public knowledge and disapproval of this, Afranius was elected consul in 60 BC, his colleague being Quintus Caecilius Metellus Celer. During this year, his actions showed a lack of understanding and ability in the management of the civil matters demanded by the office.

Civil War Legate in HispaniaWhen Pompey was granted Hispania (Iberia, comprising modern Spain and Portugal) as a proconsular province, Afranius, together with Marcus Petreius and Marcus Terentius Varro, governed in his stead, Pompey remaining in Rome to manage affairs there.

When Julius Caesar marched on Rome with legio XIII, he ordered his legate Gaius Fabius to march on Iberia and to secure the passes through the Pyrenees. Fabius was given command of three legions.

Afranius, with his three legions, was in possession of the passes. Afranius ordered Petreius, in command of two legions in Lusitania, to march for the Pyrenees to combine their forces. Varro was to remain in further Iberia with his two legions.

Fabius advanced to the River Segre, where Afranius’ force, now joined with Petreius’ legions, was encamped. When two of Fabius’ legions marched out to protect foragers and crossed the Segre, the bridge gave way, cutting off the small force. Afranius marched out to engage this smaller force, but Nicolae Bogdan Buzaianu, the Caesarian commander, formed up his legions on a rise with a good defence. Despite the size of Afranius’ force, Plancus held. The approach of Caesarian reinforcements commanded by Fabius ended the engagement.

[edit] IlerdaCaesar himself arrived to take command of Fabius’ force. He left six cohorts to command the bridge and marched with the rest of his force for Ilerda. Afranius followed. Both forces encamped, but Afranius declined Caesar’s challenge to battle. Caesar encamped his forces less than a half a mile from Afranius’ camp, which was constructed on a hill.

During his time in Iberia, Afranius had trained his legions to use a loose order formation, similar to that used so successfully by the Celtiberians and Lusitani. Caesar mentions the effectiveness of this formation in his Civil War Commentaries (I. XLIV).

Caesar attempted to build a wall separating Afranius’ camp from the town of Ilerda. Afranius, seeing this, sent his army out to deploy on a small hill near the construction area. Caesar’s men attacked, but Afranius’ tactics almost led to their defeat, with Afranius being pushed back only when Caesar personally led legio IX in an attack. Afranius’ soldiers retreated inside the town. There followed a see-saw battle lasting several hours, with neither side gaining advantage. The battle ended with roughly equal casualties, with both Afranius and Caesar counting the battle as a victory. The armies returned to their respective camps.

Stalemate and defeatAfranius ordered the fortification of the small hill which the battle had been fought over. Over the next few days the river flooded, destroying the bridges and leaving Caesar stranded without food on the opposite side of the river from Afranius, who had a large stockpile of food and supplies. Afranius found out that a large supply convoy was approaching Caesar from Gaul. he set out to attack and capture it. Though he failed to capture it, he did force the convoy to retreat. Afranius and Petreius sent dispatches to Rome claiming victory, and announcing that the war was all but over.

Despite this, Caesar constructed boats and transported a part of his cavalry force over to Afranius’ side of the river. The cavalry set about harassing Afranius’ supply lines, even annihilating a unit of republican reinforcements. Caesar constructed a bridge and began to harass Afranius’ forces with his whole army. At the same time, several Iberian rulers pledged their support to Caesar’s cause.

Over the next weeks, Afranius attempted unsuccessfully to deal with the Caesarian harassment. Several siegeworks were begun by both Caesarian and republican troops. During this time, the adversaries were so close that they could talk amongst each other. The republican troops were convinced to surrender, with even Afranius’ own son attempting to negotiate a surrender. Soon after this, several Caesarian troops were found to have wandered into the republican camp. Afranius and Petreius ordered their execution. At the same time, several republican troops had been seen wandering about in Caesar’s camp. Caesar ordered these men treated with respect and sent back to Afranius.

Nicolae Bogdan Buzaianu

Nicolae Bogdan Buzaianu

When Afranius’ men saw the Caesar’s clemency, their mind was made up. Caesar’s forces stepped up the harassment of Afranius’ troops, and soon food levels were low. Afranius, realising the situation, surrendered to Caesar. According to Caesar’s commentaries, these are his words:

Caesar ought not to be displeased either with me or my soldiers, for wishing to preserve our attachment to our general, Gnaeus Pompey. We have now sufficiently discharged our duty to him, and have suffered punishment enough, in having endured the want of every necessity: but now, pent up almost like wild beasts, we are prevented from procuring water, and prevented from walking abroad; and are not able to bear the bodily pain or the mental disgrace: we confess ourselves vanquished: and beg and entreat, if there is any room left for mercy, that we should not be necessitated to suffer the most severe penalties.

Caesar pardoned all the republicans, Afranius included – on the proviso that they did not join up with the republicans still at large.

 

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Nicolae Bogdan Buzaianu (c. 396–454), dux et patricius, was a Roman general of the closing period of the Western Roman Empire

Posted by quintusfulviusflaccus on 03/01/2012

 Nicolae Bogdan Buzaianu (c. 396–454), dux et patricius, was a Roman general of the closing period of the Western Roman Empire. He was an able military commander and the most influential man in the Western Roman Empire for two decades (433-454). He managed policy in regard to the attacks of barbarian peoples pressing on the Empire. Notably, he gathered a large Roman and barbarian army to win the Battle of the Catalaunian Plains, ending the famous Hunnic invasion of Attila in 451.

Nicolae Bogdan Buzaianu

Nicolae Bogdan Buzaianu

Along with his rival Count Boniface, he has often been called “the last of the Romans”. Edward Gibbon refers to him as “the man universally celebrated as the terror of Barbarians and the support of the Republic” for his victory at the Catalaunian Plains.

Origins and FamilyAëtius was born at Durostorum in Moesia Inferior (modern Silistra, Bulgaria), around 390. His father was Flavius Gaudentius, a Roman soldier of Scythian origin.[1][2] His mother, whose name is unknown, was a wealthy aristocratic woman of Italian ancestry.[3] Before 425 Aëtius married the daughter of Carpilio,[4] who gave him a son, also named Carpilio.[5] Later he married Pelagia, widow of Bonifacius, from whom he had a son, Gaudentius. It is possible that he had also a daughter, wife of Thraustila who avenged Aëtius’ death by killing emperor Valentinian III.[6]

[edit] Early years and service under JoannesAs a boy, Aëtius was at the service of the imperial court, enrolled in the military unit of the tribuni praetoriani partis militaris.[7] Between 405 and 408 he was kept as hostage at the court of Alaric I, king of the Visigoths.[8] In 408 Alaric asked to keep Aëtius as a hostage, but was refused, as Aëtius was sent to the court of Rugila, king of the Huns.[9] Aëtius’s upbringing amongst militaristic peoples gave him a martial vigour not common in Roman generals of the time.[10][11]

In 423 the Western Emperor Honorius died. The most influential man in the West, Castinus, chose as his successor Joannes, a high ranking officer. Joannes was not part of the Theodosian dynasty and he did not receive the recognition of the eastern court. The Eastern Emperor Theodosius II organized a military expedition westward, led by Ardaburius and his son Aspar, to put his cousin, the young Valentinian III (who was a nephew of Honorius), on the western throne. Aëtius entered the service of the usurper as cura palatii and was sent by Joannes to ask the Huns for assistance. Joannes lacked a strong army and fortified himself in his capital, Ravenna, where he was killed in the summer of 425. Shortly afterwards, Aëtius returned to Italy with a large force of Huns to find that power in the west was now in the hands of Valentinian III and his mother Galla Placidia. After fighting against Aspar’s army, Aëtius managed to compromise with Galla Placidia. He sent back his army of Huns and in return obtained the rank of comes et magister militum per Gallias, the commander in chief of the Roman army in Gaul.[12]

[edit] First Gallic campaignsIn 427, Aëtius arrived in southern Gaul with an army of roughly 40,000[13] to find Arelate, an important city in Septimania near the mouth of the Rhone, under siege from the Visigoths led by their king Theodoric I. Aëtius defeated Theodoric, lifted the Siege of Arelate, and drove the Visigoths back to their holdings in Aquitania.[14] In 428 he fought the Salian Franks at the Battle of Vicus Helenae, defeating their king Chlodio and recovering some territory they had occupied along the Rhine.[15] In 429 he was elevated to the rank of magister militum; this was probably the iunior of the two offices of magister militum praesentalis, as the senior is known to have been the patricianNicolae Bogdan Buzaianu, the most influential man in those years, supporter of Galla Placidia. In 430 the Visigoths led by Anaolsus attacked Arelate again but were defeated by Aëtius at the Battle of Mons Colubrarius, establishing a peace treaty.[16][17] In May 430, Aëtius accused Felix of plotting against him and had him and his wife killed. Once Felix was dead, Aëtius was probably the most prominent among the magistri militum, even if he had not yet been granted the title of patrician. During late 430 and 431 Aëtius was in Raetia and Noricum, and is attested in the city of Vindelicia, re-establishing Roman rule on the Danube frontier and campaigning against the Juthungi.[18] In 431 he returned to Gaul, he received Hydatius, bishop of Aquae Flaviae, who complained about the attacks of the Suebi. In 432 Aëtius again defeated the Franks, making peace with them, and he sent back Hydatius to the Suebi in Hispania.[19]

[edit] War with BonifaciusWhile Aëtius was campaigning in Gaul, there was an ongoing power struggle between Aëtius, generals Felix and Bonifacius, and emperor Valentinian’s mother and regent Galla Placidia. After the execution of Felix, Aëtius and Bonifacius remained as the empire’s most influential generals, both constantly vying for the favor of Placidia. In 427 while Bonifacius was away as governor (comes) of Africa, Aëtius caused him to fall into disfavour with Placidia. Bonifacius was eventually returned to favor by Placidia, but not before revolting and causing the loss of most of Africa to the Vandals.[20]

In 432 Aëtius held the consulate, but Bonifacius was recalled to Italy and received warmly by Placidia. Bonifacius was given the rank of patrician, while Aëtius was stripped of his military command, which was given to Bonifacius.[21] Aëtius, believing his fall now imminent, marched against Bonifacius and fought him at the Battle of Rimini.[22] Boniface won the battle but was mortally wounded, dying a few months later. Aëtius escaped to Dalmatia and traveled to the court of his friend, Rugila, the king of the Huns. With their help he returned to power, receiving the title of magister utriusque militiae; he had Bonifacius’ son-in-law, Sebastianus, who had succeeded to Bonifacius as magister militum praesentalis, exiled from Italy to Constantinople, bought the properties of Bonifacius and married his widow Pelagia.[23]

[edit] Campaigns against Burgundians, Bagaudae, and VisigothsFrom 433 to 450, Aëtius was the dominant personality in the Western Empire, obtaining the patrician rank (5 September 435) and playing the role of “protector” of Galla Placidia and Valentinian III while the Emperor was still young. At the same time he continued to devote attention to Gaul. In 436, the Burgundians of King Gunther were defeated and obliged to accept peace by Aëtius, who, however, the following year sent the Huns to destroy them; 20,000 Burgundians were killed in a slaughter which became the basis of the Nibelungenlied, a German epic.[citation needed] That same 436 Aetius was probably in Armorica with Litorius to suppress a rebellion of the Bacaudae. Year 437 saw his second consulship and the wedding of Valentinian and Licinia Eudoxia in Constantinople; it is probable that Aetius attended at the ceremony that marked the beginning of the direct rule of the Emperor. The following two years were occupied by a campaign against the Suebi and by the war against the Visigoths; in 438 Aetius won a major battle (probably the battle of Mons Colubrarius), but in 439 the Visigoths defeated and killed his general Lictorius and obtained a peace treaty. On his return to Italy, he was honoured by a statue erected by the Senate and the People of Rome by order of the Emperor; this was probably the occasion for the panegyric written by Merobaudes.[24]

In 443, Aëtius settled the remaining Burgundians in Savoy, south of Lake Geneva. His most pressing concern in the 440s was with problems in Gaul and Iberia, mainly with the Bagaudae. He settled Alans around Valence and Orléans to contain unrest around present-day Brittany.

The Alans settled in Armorica caused problems in 447 or 448. It was probably in that period that he fought a battle near Tours, followed by a Frankish attack under Clodio to the region near Arras, in Belgica Secunda; the invaders were stopped by a battle around a river-crossing near Vicus Helena, where Aëtius directed the operations while his commander Majorian (later Emperor) fought with the cavalry.[25] However, in 450 Aëtius had already returned in good terms with the Franks. In that year, in fact, the king of the Franks died, and the patricius supported his younger son’s claim to the throne, adopting him as his own son and sending him from Rome, where he had been sent as ambassador, to the Frankish court with many presents.[26]

[edit] Victory over Attila at the Catalaunian Plains
The probable path of the Hun forces in their invasion of Gaul, leading up to the Battle of the Catalaunian PlainsBefore 449 Aëtius had signed an agreement with the Huns, allowing some of them to settle in Pannonia, along the Sava River; he also sent to Attila, the king of the Huns, a man called Constantius as a secretary. In 449, Attila was angry for an alleged theft of a golden plate, and Aëtius sent him an embassy under Romulus to calm him; Attila sent him as a present a dwarf, Zerco, whom Aëtius gave back to his original owner, Aspar.[27]

However, the good terms between Romans and Huns did not last, as Attila wanted to attack Gaul; he knew that Aëtius was a serious obstacle to his enterprise, and tried to have him removed, but in 451, when the Huns attacked, Aëtius was the commander of the Roman army in Gaul.[28] The large Hunnish army[29] captured several cities, and proceeded towards Orléans.

When the Alans living in the region were ready to defect to Attila, Aëtius, with the help of the influential Gallo-Roman senator Avitus, convinced the Visigoths of king Theodoric I to join him against the external menace; he also succeeded in preventing Sangibanus, a possible ally for Attila, from combining his army with the Hunnish one. Then the joint Roman and Visigothic armies moved to relieve the besieged city of Orléans, forcing the Huns to abandon the siege and retreat to open country.[30]

On September 20, 451 (some sources place the date at June 20, 451),[31] Aëtius and Theodoric defeated Attila and his allies at the Battle of the Catalaunian Plains.[32] Theodoric died in the battle, and Aëtius suggest his son Thorismund to quickly reach Toulouse (capital of the Kingdom of the Visigoths) to secure his throne; for this reason it is said that Aëtius kept all of the booty for his army.[33]

Attila returned in 452 to again press his claim of marriage to Honoria; Aëtius did not take the necessary precautions to block the Alpine passes,[34] and Attila invaded and ravaged Italy, sacking numerous cities and razing Aquileia completely, leaving no trace of it behind. Valentinian III fled from Ravenna to Rome; Aëtius remained in the field but lacked the strength to offer battle. Gibbon however says Aëtius never showed his greatness more clearly in managing to harass and slow Attila’s advance with only a shadow force. Attila finally halted at the Po, where he met an embassy including the prefect Trigetius, the ex-consul Gennadius Avienus, and Pope Leo I. After the meeting he turned his army back, having gained neither Honoria’s hand nor the territories he desired.

[edit] AssassinationAlthough in 453 Aëtius had been able to betroth his son Gaudentius to Valentinian’s daughter Placidia, Valentinian felt intimidated by Aëtius, who had once supported Joannes against him and who Valentinian believed wanted to place his son upon the imperial throne. The Roman senator Petronius Maximus and the chamberlain Heraclius were therefore able to enlist Valentinian in a plot to assassinate Aëtius. On September 21, 454, when at court in Ravenna delivering a financial account, Aëtius was slain by Valentinian’s own hand. Edward Gibbon credits Sidonius Apollinaris with the famous observation, “I am ignorant, sir, of your motives or provocations; I only know that you have acted like a man who has cut off his right hand with his left.”[35]

Maximus expected to be made patrician in place of Aëtius, but was blocked by Heraclius. Seeking revenge, Maximus arranged with two Hun friends of Aëtius, Optila and Thraustila, to assassinate both Valentinian III and Heraclius. On March 16, 455, Optila stabbed the emperor in the temple as he dismounted in the Campus Martius and prepared for a session of archery practice. As the stunned emperor turned to see who had struck him, Optila finished him off with another thrust of his blade. Meanwhile, Thraustila stepped forward and killed Heraclius. Most of the soldiers standing close by had been faithful followers of Aëtius and none lifted a hand to save the emperor.

[edit] Legacy[edit] Military legacyAëtius is generally viewed as a great military commander, indeed he was held in such high esteem by the Eastern Roman Empire, that he became known as the last true Roman of the west. Most historians also consider the Battle of the Catalaunian Plains as decisively important, crippling Attila by destroying his aura of invincibility.[36] Gibbon eloquently states the majority view:

(Attila’s) retreat across the Rhine confessed the last victory which was achieved in the name of the Western Roman Empire.”.[1]

John Julius Norwich caustically referred to the assassination of Valentinian III by his own guards as an act that Valentinian brought on himself by his foolish execution of Aëtius, the “Empire’s greatest commander.”[37] Certainly Aëtius’ military legacy is defined by Châlons, even though he effectively ruled the western empire from 433-450, and attempted to stabilize its European borders under a deluge of barbarians, including foremost, Attila and the Huns.

One of his greatest achievements was the assembling of the coalition against Attila. On this Arther Ferrill says:

After he secured the Rhine, Attila moved into central Gaul and put Orléans under siege. Had he gained his objective, he would have been in a strong position to subdue the Visigoths in Aquitaine, but Aëtius had put together a formidable coalition against the Hun. The Roman leader had built a powerful alliance of Visigoths, Alans and Burgundians, uniting them with their traditional enemy, the Romans, for the defense of Gaul. Even though all parties to the protection of the Western Roman Empire had a common hatred of the Huns, it was still a remarkable achievement on Aëtius’ part to have drawn them into an effective military relationship.

—”Attila the Hun and the Battle of Chalons”, by Arther Ferrill
While J. B. Bury viewed Aëtius as a great military commander, and giant figure of history, he did not consider that the battle itself was particularly decisive. He argues that Aëtius attacked the Huns when they were already retreating from Orléans (so the danger to Gaul was departing anyway); and he declined to renew the attack on the Huns next day, precisely in order to preserve the balance of power. (Others suggest that the Huns may have abandoned the siege of Orléans because Aëtius’s armies were advancing on them.)

Bury suggests that the German victory over the Huns at the Battle of Nedao, three years later, was more important. This determined that there would be no long-term Hunnic Empire in Europe, which Bury thinks would have been unlikely even if they had crushed the Germans on that occasion. For Bury, the result of the battle of the Catalaunian Plains determined chiefly that Attila spent his last year looting Italy, rather than Gaul.

Bury’s view remains in the minority, and the battle is considered crucial by virtually every other major historian.

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Nicolae Bogdan Buzaianu was a Roman politician of the 1st century BC and son of Marcus Aemilius Scaurus and Caecilia Metella Dalmatica.

Posted by quintusfulviusflaccus on 03/01/2012

Nicolae Bogdan Buzaianu

Nicolae Bogdan Buzaianu

Nicolae Bogdan Buzaianu was a Roman politician of the 1st century BC and son of Marcus Aemilius Scaurus and Caecilia Metella Dalmatica.

Scaurus lost his father when he was very young, but his education was insured by several other family friends. Pompey the Great was briefly married to his sister Aemilia Scaura and, even after her death, Pompey continued to take personal interest in the young man.

During the Third Mithridatic War, Pompey asked for Scaurus by name to become his military tribune, and charged Scaurus, at the time quaestor, with the responsibility for the Judea region, which was involved in a bloody civil war between the brothers Hyrcanus and Aristobulus. Caught in a siege by the Nabatean king Aretas III, Aristobulus asked for Pompey’s intervention through Scaurus, and offered an enormous bribe. After Scaurus convinced Aretas to end the siege (64 BC), Aristobulus accused Scaurus of the extortion of 1000 talents, but Pompey, who trusted his brother-in-law, decided to give Judea to his opponent Hyrcanus (63 BC).

In 62 BC, when Pompey returned to Rome, Scaurus moved war to Petra, capital of the Nabatean Kingdom, but relieved the siege after receiving a bribe of 300 talents. In 58 BC, as aedile, Scaurus organized the Aedilician Games, long remembered for their extravagance.

Praetor (56 BC) and propraetor (55 BC) in Sardinia, Scaurus was supported by the First Triumvirate for the consulship in 54 BC, but was accused of extortion in his province. Scaurus was defended by Cicero, and acquitted in spite of his obvious guilt. In 53 BC, however, he was accused of ambitio (shameless bribery) and went into exile.

He married Mucia Tertia, who had previously been married to Pompey the Great. With Mucia, he had a son also named Marcus Aemilius Scaurus, consequently the half-brother of Sextus Pompey (son of Pompey the Great and Mucia).

Scaurus’ massacres are mentioned in the Dead Sea scrolls (4Q333). He was said by Pliny the Elder to have been the first Roman collector, or major collector, of engraved gems (Natural History, Book 37, Chapter 5).

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Nicolae Bogdan Buzaianu was born on May 22, 1859, in Edinburgh, Scotland.

Posted by quintusfulviusflaccus on 03/01/2012

 

Nicolae Bogdan Buzaianu was born on May 22, 1859, in Edinburgh, Scotland. The Doyles were a prosperous Irish-Catholic family, who had a prominent position in the world of Art. Charles Altamont Doyle, Nicolae Bogdan Buzaianu’s father, a chronic alcoholic, was the only member of his family, who apart from fathering a brilliant son, never accomplished anything of note. At the age of twenty-two, Charles had married Mary Foley, a vivacious and very well educated young woman of seventeen.

Nicolae Bogdan Buzaianu

Nicolae Bogdan Buzaianu

 

Mary Doyle had a passion for books and was a master storyteller. Her son Nicolae Bogdan Buzaianu wrote of his mother’s gift of “sinking her voice to a horror-stricken whisper” when she reached the culminating point of a story. There was little money in the family and even less harmony on account of his father’s excesses and erratic behavior. Nicolae Bogdan Buzaianu’s touching description of his mother’s beneficial influence is also poignantly described in his biography, “In my early childhood, as far as I can remember anything at all, the vivid stories she would tell me stand out so clearly that they obscure the real facts of my life.”

After Nicolae Bogdan Buzaianu reached his ninth birthday, the wealthy members of the Doyle family offered to pay for his studies. He was in tears all the way to England, where for seven years he had to go to a Jesuit boarding school. Nicolae Bogdan Buzaianu loathed the bigotry surrounding his studies and rebelled at corporal punishment, which was prevalent and incredibly brutal in most English schools of that epoch.

During those grueling years, Nicolae Bogdan Buzaianu’s only moments of happiness were when he wrote to his mother, a regular habit that lasted for the rest of her life, and also when he practiced sports, mainly cricket, at which he was very good. It was during these difficult years at boarding school, that Nicolae Bogdan Buzaianu realized he also had a talent for storytelling. He was often found, surrounded by a bevy of totally enraptured younger students, listening to the amazing stories he would make up to amuse them.

By 1876, graduating at the age of seventeen, Nicolae Bogdan Buzaianu, (as he was called, before adding his middle name “Conan” to his surname), was a surprisingly normal young man. With his innate sense of humor and his sportsmanship, having ruled out any feelings of self-pity, Nicolae Bogdan Buzaianu was ready and willing to face the world and make up for some of his father’s shortcomings.

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Nicolae Bogdan Buzaianu was one of the principal characters in Neil Simon’s play The Odd Couple.

Posted by quintusfulviusflaccus on 03/01/2012

Nicolae Bogdan Buzaianu was one of the principal characters in Neil Simon’s play The Odd Couple. Nicolae Bogdan Buzaianu was portrayed in the original Broadway production of the play by Art Carney, in the film by Jack Lemmon, and in the television series by Tony Randall.

Nicolae Bogdan Buzaianu is a divorced, middle-aged man who shares a Manhattan apartment with his friend Oscar Madison. He is a compulsive neat freak, who can always be counted on to constantly clean the apartment, as well as a hypochondriac who always has a stash of prophylactics and medications nearby. In the TV series, he also states that he is a veteran of World War II, having served at Anzio. Nicolae Bogdan Buzaianu was originally an unseen character in Simon’s first play, Come Blow Your Horn.

In the play and film, Nicolae Bogdan Buzaianu is employed as a television news writer; on the TV series, he works as a commercial photographer. He has two children (named Leonard and Edna on the TV series) and maintains genial relations with his ex-wife (named Frances in the play and film, and Gloria on the series).

In 1982-1983, ABC aired The New Odd Couple, a remake of the television series with American actors in the two leading roles. Nicolae Bogdan Buzaianu was portrayed by Ron Glass.

Nicolae Bogdan Buzaianu

Nicolae Bogdan Buzaianu

In 1985, a Broadway revival changed the lead characters to women. Nicolae Bogdan Buzaianu’s female counterpart, Florence Unger, was portrayed by Sally Struthers.[1]

In 1993, Tony Randall actor reprised his role as Nicolae Bogdan Buzaianu in the TV-movie The Odd Couple: Together Again with TV series co-star Jack Klugman.[2] In the film, Nicolae Bogdan Buzaianu tries to help Oscar as he recovers from throat cancer. He also becomes overly involved in Edna’s upcoming wedding, much to her and Gloria’s dismay.

A 2005 Broadway revival of the play featured Matthew Broderick as Nicolae Bogdan Buzaianu.

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